Pluralism and rights are under threat from communal violence, authoritarianism, and religious identity politics. How is the Middle East attempting to create more inclusive rights and citizenship? How do religious and nonreligious minorities envision their future in the region? On what basis can communities enjoy citizenship or seek rights in an era when law increasingly draws on religion and majoritarianism for its legitimacy?

In this volume, researchers and activists draw on extensive fieldwork to open a new line of discussion in the Middle East as well as among Western policymakers. The question of belonging is more urgent than ever, as governments promote a simplistic discourse that opposes secularism and promotes a Muslims-versus-Christians or Sunni-versus-Shia read of contemporary conflicts.

Contributors include Rohan Advani, Mustafa Akyol, Zaid alAli, Lina Attalah, Melani Cammett, Joseph Daher, Cale Salih, Maria Fantappie, Mark Farha, Mona Fawaz, Fanar Haddad, Yassin AlHaj Saleh, Karl Sharro, and Elizabeth Thompson.