About the Data
The primary source of these data are reports by the states submitted to the U.S. Departments of Labor and of the U.S. Treasury. We invite comments and corrections but but users should not expect that data is corrected from any errors of submissions, such as double counting or zeroes. Weekly claims data will be updated on Thursday each week, and monthly data will be updated by the end of the following month (for instance, August data will be up by the end of September).
- “State” vs. “Federal”: State claims refer to the permanent basic package of up to twenty-six weeks of unemployment available to regular workers in taxable employment. Federal programs cover those not eligible currently for state benefits either because they are long-term unemployed or because they are independent contractors, or did not earn enough to collect state UI. State benefits are paid for through state payroll taxes, and federal benefits are paid for through state taxes.
- Pandemic Unemployment Assistance (PUA): CARES Act program that expanded states’ ability to provide unemployment insurance for many workers impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, including for workers who are not ordinarily eligible for unemployment benefits, including independent contractors, self-employed, students and youth, and others who may be unable to prove prior-year income. The program is federally funded, but applicants apply through state systems where eligibility is determined. Read more here.
- Pandemic Emergency Unemployment Compensation (PEUC): CARES Act program that extends eligibility for unemployment benefits by up to thirteen weeks for anyone who exhausts their state-level maximum week benefit. Read more here.
- Federal Pandemic Unemployment Compensation (FPUC): CARES Act program that automatically provides an additional $600 in federally funded benefits per week, applied to all weekly benefits (regular and PUA), from the week ending April 4, 2020 through the week ending July 25, 2020.
- Worksharing: Worksharing, also known as short-time compensation (STC), allows employers to reduce hours of work for employees rather than laying off workers. Employees experiencing a reduction in hours are allowed to collect a percentage of their unemployment compensation benefits to replace a portion of their lost wages. Read more here.
- Initial claims: New application for unemployment benefits or to restart unemployment benefits after a subsequent period of unemployment benefits within a benefit year.
- Continued claims or insured unemployment: Ongoing claims for unemployment benefits including weeks that are paid, and weeks that are pending or serving a disqualification.
- Weeks claimed: The total number of such continued claims accumulated during a period
- Weeks compensated: An unemployment made for a week of partial or total unemployment is considered a “compensated week.” The total number of weeks compensated in a year divided by fifty-two represents the average number of ongoing beneficiaries receiving payments per week.
- First payments: The “first payment” represents the first payment for unemployment received by an eligible unemployed individual. It is used as a proxy for the number of beneficiaries for a program.
- Seasonally adjusted (SA) versus non-seasonally adjusted (NSA): Seasonal adjustments account for fluctuations throughout the year that are driven by various trends in weather, holidays, school calendars, etc. This allows the data to highlight cyclical trends aside from these regular fluctuations. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, we have been relying more on the NSA numbers, since it is unclear to what degree current trends are impacted by regular seasonal fluctuations.
- Advance versus prior week claims: As per the Department of Labor, “Advance claims are not directly comparable to claims reported in prior weeks. Advance claims are reported by the state liable for paying the unemployment compensation, whereas previous weeks reported claims reflect claimants by state of residence.” Advance claims can be thought of as an estimated figure, whereas prior week is the adjusted, final, figure that is posted on a weekly delay. In this dashboard, we use advance claims only for the most recently released weekly data, whereas all previous weeks’ data are “prior week.”
- Nonmonetary timeliness: An official federal standard representing the number of days between the detection of an issue related to eligibility other than the amount earned and a determination of that issue. Separate rates are reported for separation and nonseparation issues. Core performance measures can be found here.
- Separation: An eligibility issue related to the reason that an individual became unemployed, such as whether they were laid off, fired, or quit.
- Nonseparation: Eligibility issues other than how much a worker earned or why they became unemployed. These include whether an issue is available for work, refused a job offer, or failed to search work.
- Benefit exhaustions: The number of individuals who have reached the maximum amount of time that they are able to collect benefits, and have received their final payment.
- National payments: The amount paid for all programs by the U.S. Treasury.
- Lost Wage Assistance: An executive action put forth by the Trump administration on August 8, 2020 that diverted FEMA funding to states to administer federal supplemental UI payments, amounting to $300 per person per week, for a maximum of six weeks, and a maximum of $44 billion nationally. Read more here.
About the Project
The COVID-19 pandemic has sparked an unprecedented economic crisis, during which tens of millions of Americans have relied on state and federal unemployment benefits as a lifeline of economic support. While unemployment programs are delivering billions of dollars of aid to families and the economy, the process of applying for and receiving that aid has been frustrating, with the millions seeking aid experiencing excruciating wait times at the hands of overwhelmed state systems. The TCF–New America pandemic unemployment insurance dashboard seeks to shed light on the impacts of and challenges facing this critical safety net.
Weekly Statement On The Latest Numbers
June 10, 2021
In response to the release of the weekly unemployment numbers, Andrew Stettner, senior fellow at The Century Foundation and one of the nation’s leading experts on unemployment insurance (UI), released the following statement:
“Today’s Labor Department report further underscores the folly of those advocating for a premature cut-off of federal unemployment benefits. On the heels of a solid jobs report last week (+559,000 jobs), today’s report likewise shows a job market making steady progress out from the tremendous hole left by COVID-19. For one, layoffs have slowed dramatically, with new jobless claims standing at just 438,000, down 60,000 for the week and a whopping 58 percent from the beginning of the year, when new layoffs were routinely over one million per week.
“Behind the headlines, the number of workers filing continued claims for unemployment has slid from 16.8 million on April 24 to 15.3 million as of the week ending May 22, a drop of 9 percent in just one month. This includes:
- 3.3 million on state benefits NSA (down 175,000 for the week, 10 percent for the month)
- 5.3 million on PEUC (down 70,000 last week, 1 percent for the month)
- 6.36 million on PUA (down 13,000 for the week, 13 percent for the month)
- 196,000 on EB (down 16,000 for the week, 54 percent for the month).
“But rather than follow through with the promised support provided by the American Rescue Plan, 25 governors have made the unilateral and unfathomable decision to reject 100 percent federally-funded enhanced unemployment (in 21 of these states, governors even rejected PUA and PEUC benefits). These cuts will eliminate assistance for 4 million of the 15.3 million currently receiving benefits, including two million that will lose assistance altogether.
“Data from the job search company Indeed showed only a minor, temporary increase in job search intensity in states that announced cuts to benefits, with rates returning to normal even as the deadline for the benefits cut-off approached. This underscores the reality that it is the strength of the jobs market, not the size of unemployment benefits, that will determine how fast Americans can return to where they want to be: a job.
“New data released today by TCF show just how paltry the remaining benefits will be in these 25 states. Without the $300 supplement, Indiana (33%), Tennessee (32%), Arizona (32%), and Alaska (27%) will all pay less than one-third of prior wages to workers that remain on state aid after federal assistance is eliminated. Workers should not be forced to survive on unbelievably low unemployment pay—not during this recovery or at any time. Pandemic unemployment benefits have been one of the great success stories of COVID policy-making, preventing millions of American families from falling into poverty. They should be continued until the recovery is far further along, and then replaced by permanent reforms to the UI program so that workers can count on this safety net in all economic conditions.”
Access More Data
- To see a graph of state data over time (when available), click on a state’s bar on the right-hand-side bar chart.
- You may download the data in the charts above directly by clicking the download button adjacent to each map, or download the entire workbook for all graphs in the tableau (bottom right), or see the full data set here.
- For those who want to dive even deeper into the data, TCF partnered with Community Legal Services in Philadelphia to make available an expansive data explorer that contains historical data on twenty-five or more variables, by state. Data is also downloadable.
Join the conversation or pose any inquiries by visiting the UI data google group.
Read TCF Publications on UI Data
- Delay in Extending Unemployment Aid Has Shortchanged Workers $17 Billion in January, February 2, 2021
- 12 Million Workers Facing Jobless Benefit Cliff on December 26, November 18, 2020
- Six Months into Pandemic, Just over Half of Applicants Received Unemployment Insurance Payments, November 9, 2020
- Trump’s Lost Wage Assistance Program No Substitute for Federal Unemployment Benefits, August 20, 2020
- Who Is Receiving Unemployment Insurance, and Who Just Lost $600 per Week?, August 7, 2020
- HEALS Act Would Strip $90 Billion in Unemployment Payments, Crush 25+ Million Jobless Families, July 27, 2020
- More than 25 Million Americans Are About to Lose an Essential $600-a-Week Unemployment Insurance Benefit, July 8, 2020
- Unemployment Payouts Accelerated during April and May—but Are Still Too Slow, June 2, 2020
- New Data Show Unemployment Programs Delivering Aid, but Struggling with Record Demand, April 29, 2020